Percepciones de la enfermedad y hábitos de vida saludable en personas con enfermedades crónicas Percepciones de la enfermedad y hábitos de vida saludable en personas con enfermedades crónicas

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Mariantonia Lemos http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9131-4704
Susana Torres https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5393-1296
Isabel Jaramillo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1492-359X
Pablo Emilio Gómez https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5925-692X
Alejandra Barbosa https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3760-0021

Keywords

percepciones de la enfermedad, hábitos de vida saludables, enfermedad crónica

Resumen

Objetivo: Evaluar las percepciones de la enfermedad que se asocian con hábitos de vida saludable en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas en Medellín y municipios aledaños.



Método: Estudio prospectivo correlacional basado en la aplicación del cuestionario breve de percepciones de la enfermedad (BIPQ), cuestionario de la salud del paciente (PHQ-9), cuestionario de ansiedad generalizada (GAD-7) y un cuestionario de hábitos de vida saludable. Participaron 51 pacientes con diferentes enfermedades crónicas: migraña, cáncer de seno, diabetes, artritis reumatoide, enfermedad cardiovascular e hipertensión arterial primaria. La evaluación de los hábitos de vida saludable se llevó a cabo tres meses después.


Resultados: Se encontró que en promedio los participantes comprenden su enfermedad (M = 8,09, D.T. =2,48), perciben que sus acciones (M = 7,06, D.T. = 2,79) y el tratamiento (M = 7,89, D.T. = 2,69) la controlan y que esta tiene un carácter crónico (M = 7,49, D.T. = 3,16); que hay correlaciones entre los Hábitos de vida saludables (HVS) con la percepción de consecuencias de forma negativa, y la identidad y preocupación emocional de manera positiva (p < 0,05). Además, que una relación lineal entre las consecuencias (Beta= 0,391) y la preocupación emocional por la enfermedad (Beta = 0,311) con los HVS, F (5, 45) = 2,707, p < 0,05. Las proporciones de depresión y ansiedad en la muestra fueron similares a las de la población general.


Conclusiones: La percepción de que una enfermedad tiene consecuencias negativas y la preocupación por esta lleva a la implementación de comportamientos saludables.

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