Negative stereotypes: an analysis of Social Cognition in different ethnic groups. Social cognition of stereotypes Negative stereotypes: an analysis of Social Cognition in different ethnic groups. Social cognition of stereotypes

Contenido principal de artículos

Diana Ramos-Oliveira
Andrzej Pankalla

Palabras clave

Social cognition, negative stereotypes, ethnicity, intergroup threat, Brazil, Poland.


Introduction: The processes related to social cognitions contribute as a traumatic and stressful event for some ethnic and minority groups, causing a series of psychic suffering in individuals. Social cognition considered stereotypes as characteristics of a group included in its mental representation.

Objective: The study was conducted to analyze the negative stereotypes in two cultures with very different history and geopolitical context, especially how stereotypes are reflected in the cognitive component of prejudiced attitudes.

Method: Four hundred fifty one (N=451) undergraduate students volunteered to take part in the study, the participants came from careers in the area of Social Sciences and Humanities in the non-probabilistic sample. After receiving the information, participants completed Negative Stereotype Index. A descriptive analysis and the T-test to know the differences between the perception and self-perception of the groups.

Results: Show that negative stereotype traits in Poland and Brazil, found negative stereotypic traits attributed to an out-group resulted in more unfavorable evaluations than descriptions consisting of positive attributes. In both groups, and their antecedents were associated with negative out-group attitudes, however, is a more general and more important one.

Conclusion: The findings found that expectations about the out group and negative stereotypes occur in conjunction with other negative emotions, which intensify negative out-group attitudes. The assessment that the Poles made of the Germans was like that of the Brazilians of the Argentines or of a group of relatively higher status. That is, they considered the Germans as more arrogant, sincere and less modest. The different groups of people may dislike each other for similar reasons. Explanations are offered for the limitations of the study and proposal for future research.


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.
Abstract 204 | PDF COMPLETO Downloads 89


Alesina, A., Carlana, M., Ferrara, E., & Pinotti, P. (December, 2018). Revealing Stereotypes: Evidence from Immigrants in Schools. Working Paper 25333.

Branscombe, N. R., Schmitt, M. T., & Harvey, R. D. (1999). Perceiving pervasive discrimination among African Americans: Implications for group identification and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 135-149.

Brewer, M. B., & Alexander, M. G. (2002). Intergroup emotions and images. In D. Mackie & E. Smith (Eds.), From prejudice to intergroup emotions: Differentiated reactions to social groups (pp. 209-225). New York: Psychology Press.

Cross, J. E. Jr. (1991). Shades of black: Diversity in African-American identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Cuddy, A. J. C. & Fiske, S. T. (2003). Behavioral correlates of warmth and competence stereotypes. Póster presentado en la cuarta reunión anual de la “Society for Personality and Social Psychology”, Los Angeles.

Dixon, T. L. (2000). A social cognitive approach to studying racial stereotyping in the mass media. African American Research Perspectives, 6(1), 60-68.;view=2up;seq=66;size=150

Dovidio, J. F., Brigham, J., Johnson, B. T., & Gaertner, S. L. (1996). Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination: Another look. In N. Macrae, C. Stangor, & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Stereotypes and stereotyping (pp. 276-319). New York: Guilford.

Fiske, T. S. & Tablante, C. B. (2015). Attitudes and Social Cognition. In M. Mikulincer & P. R. Shaver (Editors-in-Chief), APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology. (Vol. 1, pp. 457-507).

Fiske, S., & Taylor, S.E. (2013). Social Cognition: From brain to culture. 2th Ed. California: Sage.

Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878-902.

Hadarics, M. & Kende, A. (2018). Negative stereotypes as motivated justifications for moral exclusion. The Journal of Social Psychology, 159(3) 257-269.

Hamilton, D. L., Sherman, S. J., & Ruvolo, C. M. (1990). Stereotype-based expectancies: Effects on information processing and social behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 46, 35-60.

Kim, C., Harwood, J., & Xiang, J. (2018). The Negative and Positive influences of threat and nonthreat media messages about immigrants. International Journal of Communication, 12, 950-972.

Koenig, A.M., & Eagly, A. H. (2005). Stereotype threat in man on a test of social sensitivity. Sex Roles, 52, 489-496.

Mathew, B., & Raja, B. W. D. (2018). Social Cogniton. New Delhi: S.B. Nangia A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Niwa, E. Y., Boxer, P., Dubow, E.F., Huesmann, L. R., Landau, S., Shikaki, K., & Gvirsman, S. D. (2014). Negative Stereotypes of Ethnic Out groups: A Longitudinal Examination Among Palestinian, Israeli Jewish, and Israeli Arab Youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 26(1), 166–179.

Pahl, K., & Way, N. (2006). Longitudinal trajectories of ethnic identity among urban Black and Latino Adolescents. Child Development, 77(5), 1403-1415.

Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults. Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499-514.

Ramos-Oliveira, D., Magnavita, P., & Oliveira, F. S. (2017). Aspectos sociocognitivos como eventos estressantes na saúde mental em grupos étnicos e minoritários no Brasil. Summa Psicológica UST, 14(1), 43-55.

Riek, B. M., Mania, E. W., & Gaertner, S. L. (2006). Intergroup threat and outgroup attitudes: A Meta-Analytic Review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 336-353.

Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Lightfoot, M., Moraes, A., Dopkins, S., & LaCour, J. (1998).
Developmental, ethnic, and gender differences in ethnic identity among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 13, 487-507.

Schmitt, M. T., Spears, R., & Branscombe, N. R. (2003). Constructing a minority group identity out of shared rejection: The case of international students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 1-12.

Smeding, A., Quinton, J-C., Lauer, K., Barca, L., & Pezzulo, G. (2016). Tracking and Simulating Dynamics of Implicit Stereotypes: A Situated Social Cognition Perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111(6), 817-834.

Spencer-Rodgers, J. & McGovern, T. (2002). Attitudes toward the culturally different: The role of intercultural communication barriers, affective responses, consensual stereotypes, and perceived threat. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26, 609-631.

Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797-811.

Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., & Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 34, pp. 379-440). New York: Academic Press.

Stephan, W. G., & Stephan, C. W. (1996). Predicting prejudice. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20, 409-426.

Stephan, W. G., Boniecki, K. A., Ybarra, O., Bettencourt, A., Ervin,K. S., Jackson, L. A., McNatt P.S , and Renfro. C. L. (2002). The role of threats in the racial attitudes of Blacks and Whites. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1242-1254.

Stephan, W. G., Renfro, C. L., Esses, V. M., Stephan, C. W., & Martin, T. (2001). The effect of threat on attitudes toward immigrants. Unpublished manuscript. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.

Wheeler, S. C., & Petty, R. E. (2001). The effects of stereotype activation on behavior: A review of possible mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 797-826.

Ybarra, O., Schaberg, L., & Keiper, S. (1999). Favorable and unfavorable target expectancies and social information processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 698-709.