Associated roles of onlookers in school bullying: validation of a scale to detect them School violence: a scale to detect types of onlookers. School violence: a scale to detect types of onlookers.

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José Ángel Vera-Noriega
Elsa González González
Martha Peña-Ramos
Francisco Durazo-Salas




Objective: this paper aims to validate the scale of onlookers which is part of the instrument of associated roles of bullying from Belacchi and Farina (2010). Method: was measured in public middle schools with a representative sample of young people aged between 12 to 17 years old in the state of Sonora, México; the scale measures different dimensions of action against a bullying situation, having 19 items in Likert scale of five answer choices. The data were processed following the item response theory: Rasch calibration reagents, Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis using SPSS with AMOS. Results: the psychometric parameters obtained in the confirmatory model are: CFI = 0,96; GFI = 0,96; RMSEA = 0,05; Cronbach´s alpha= 0,82; the findings show three-dimensions: Assistant (pro aggressor), Defender (pro victim) and Outsider (not participating). Conclusion: The three types of observers found contrast with the five and seven roles initially contemplated. Differences in terms of ecological validity are discussed.


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